Robert Malone did NOT Invent mRNA Vaccines — Evidence-based discussion
In today’s Medium article I’ll be discussing a claim spread by AVers, anti-Covid individuals and poor unfortunate people who believe that Robert Malone “invented” mRNA vaccines when he did not whatsoever, the proof will be evidence-based to out this widespread false claim to sleep once and for all. So without further ado, here’s the article.
➡ Malone Claims
Malone definitely did contribute to the development of mRNA as a vaccine/drug. His 1989 paper established the principle of using cationic lipids in order to introduce external mRNA into cells.
This was a milestone that later development on mRNA therapeutics built on, including work by Dr Mariko in the 1990s mentioned above.
I’m not sure quite what his angle is with the COVID vaccines though. If you read his Twitter he seems to be quite bitter about being ‘written out’ of the history of mRNA, he’s advocating traditional vaccine methods (e.g. Novavax) over mRNA and viral vector platforms, and repeating some claims about safety that aren’t really supportable (including the claim the vaccine-induced spike protein is somehow ‘toxic’ and responsible for some huge quantity of adverse events that is being covered up).
Robert Malone published a few papers — brilliant that’s what science is about. He didn’t invent mRNA vaccines he wasn’t even the first to theorise them.
He bases a lot of his claim on his 1989 paper but it is important to know that “Cationic liposome-mediated RNA transfection” paper in 1989 failed to mention that Liposome-mediated mRNA transfection into primary cells had been reported already in 1978 (Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/274923a0)
1989 Robert Malone paper that other scientists were researching at the same time as Malone. (Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC297778/)
There’s a massive difference between RNA transfection and mRNA vaccines.
RNA transfection is the introduction of RNA into cells and tissues (i.e. getting RNA into cells in the first place). While the experiments/studies that Malone performed/wrote way back in the 1980s are indeed the first successful examples of RNA transfection, the synthetic mRNA they created and then transfected into the cells was still too immunogenic, and also too unstable to be viable as a therapeutic. In addition, it was Zhou and Berglund who proved that mRNA vaccination is possible, via their work in using RNA to elicit immune responses against influenza in mice cells. (Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7879415/)
➡ History of mRNA
As far back as 1978, scientists had used fatty membrane structures called liposomes to transport mRNA into mouse and human cells to induce protein expression. The liposomes packaged and protected the mRNA and then fused with cell membranes to deliver the genetic material into cells.
Malone’s contributions to mRNA vaccine development are highlighted here; he did nothing apart from releasing a paper he abandoned mRNA vaccine research decades ago. (Source:
This fantastic webpage shows the entire history of mRNA usage, the main contributors to mRNA and other aspects that have happened through mRNA’s history such as the discovery of mRNA in 1961 by Brenner and colleagues described the presence of an unstable intermediate molecule that copies the information encoded by the DNA and directs the synthesis of proteins: RNA. (Source: https://the-dna-universe.com/2021/04/15/the-history-of-mrna-applications/)
➡ Rightful Inventors of mRNA Vaccines
The main credit goes to Hungarian biochemist Katalin Kariko and Dr Weissman. Katalin Karikó’s work is what laid the groundwork for mRNA vaccines causing the usage of mRNA technology for both therapeutics and prophylactics. (Source: https://www.statnews.com/2020/11/10/the-story-of-mrna-how-a-once-dismissed-idea-became-a-leading-technology-in-the-covid-vaccine-race/)
➡ mRNA Patents belong to Katalin Kariko, NOT Malone
Malone has also tried to claim that he owns the patents to mRNA vaccines which is clearly not the case at all and have no evidence to support this outlandish claim.
Cellscript a company that has licensed the use of Katalin Kariko and Weissman as RNA kits and other products are based were invented by Professors Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman at the University of Pennsylvania. (Source: https://www.cellscript.com/) (Source of mRNA patents from Cellscript licensed from Kariko & Weissman to Moderna: https://www.sec.gov/ix?doc=/Archives/edgar/data/1682852/000168285221000006/mrna-20201231.htm)
Proof of Sub-license to Moderna from Cellscript, LLC on advancements made by Drs. Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman at the University of Pennsylvania (UPenn) in the 2000s. (Source: https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1682852/000119312518323562/d577473dex108.htm)
Proof of patent owned Katalin Kariko and Drew Weissman showing the patent is still active. The patent is called — RNA containing modified nucleosides and methods of use thereof. (Source: https://patents.google.com/patent/US8278036B2/en)
Very short and sweet, the evidence above shows Malone is not the inventor of mRNA Vaccines and the claims should be dismissed automatically.
💥 Thanks for reading, Lawrence. Please consider a small contribution, in the form of a beer as all articles are created in my small amount of spare time: https://www.buymeacoffee.com/LawrenceRob